超收中介費系列之一: 有關印尼家務工的訓練費用及因負債奴役以至逼迫勞動的情況

(轉自:草根 ‧ 行動 ‧ 媒體 http://grassmediaction.wordpress.com/2014/02/27/超收中介費系列之一-有關印尼家務工的訓練費用及/
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超收中介費系列之一: 有關印尼家務工的訓練費用及因負債奴役以至逼迫勞動的情況

[文: 太利]

據印尼領事館於2012年5月24日頒布的印尼家務工派遣費用的細項詳列(見附件一),印尼家務工在來港前需承擔的整體費用為13,436港圓。這筆費用,對來自貧困家庭的印尼家務工來說,實在為數不菲。當中的「訓練費用」及「訓練器材費用」分別為5,000港圓及2,727港圓,共計為7,727港圓,佔其所需承擔的整體費用,13,436港圓的57.5%。

不合理的「訓練費」

據了解,自2013年起,印尼的大學每學期的學費,因政府的資助,學生所需繳付的只約為500,000至7,500,000印尼盾(見附件二),即約為333至4,990港圓。具體收費就家庭經濟狀況而定。

另外,印尼現時的最低工資為每月2,400,000印尼盾(見附件三),即約為1,597港圓。以此作為基礎,推算理解印尼的生活水平,再加上與印尼的大學學費的對照,可見印尼家務工所需繳付的7,727港圓「訓練費用」,實為不合理的徵費及搾取,亦間接地造成印尼家務工因負債奴役以至逼迫勞動的情況。

訓練責任及費用的負擔誰屬?

在香港,我們習以為常,由九年免費中小學教育及大學教育的資助,以至為有需要而無業或待業人士提供的免費再培訓課程以及生活津貼,在在都顯示著,為整體經濟總值培訓相關人士,實為本地政府理應負擔的責任。同時,印尼政府亦的確有為其大學生提供資助。同理, 印尼政府既以輸出本地女性到外地做家務工作為一種國家有計劃的經濟政策。那麼,更理當負上為其培訓的責任,而非任由中介公司收取不合理費用,間接地造成印尼家務工的負債奴役狀況。

容讓奴役的香港/為勞工提供合理保障的香港

期望印尼政府為其本國人民提供及負擔所需服務及相關費用,實為合理要求。這一方面可避免其本國人民被迫因負債奴役以至逼迫勞動;另方面,更可免除香港因印尼的不理想安排,而被迫陷於不體面的困境:我們願意香港成為一個任由勞工成為奴隸的「世界知名城市」嗎?再者,為印尼家務工提供應有的合理保障,更可防範香港本土的勞工因結構性的不公平競爭,而導致其議價能力以及勞動條件被壓搾的情況。

提問

請問當局會否就此情況與印尼政府進行磋商,以改善有關情況,為在港印尼家務工及本港勞工提供應有的合理勞動條件及保障?

附件一

Republic of Indonesia Manpower and Transmigration Ministerial Decree No 98 Year 2012 on components and amount of placement fee for Indonesia domestic workers working in Hong Kong SAR

No

Components

Amount (IDR)

Amount (HKD)

Explanation

I Paid by the employer
1 Legalizing the working contract 341000 310 Currency exchange rate : 1 HKD ~1100 IDR
2 Indonesia Migrant Workers insurance in Hong Kong SAR (2 years) 1320000 1200
3 Indonesia migrant workers medical check up in Hong Kong SAR 660000 600
4 Employment Visa 176000 160
5 TransportationRound way ticket from Java to Hong KongRound way ticket from outside Java to Hong KongAirport Tax and handling 40000007000000300000 36366363272 Depending on the distance fromworkers’ city of originto Hong Kong
6

Hong Kong SAR agency service

5500000

5000

Total amount

Workers from Java

Outside Java

12297000

15297000

11179

13906

II

Paid by workers

1

Insurance of migrant workers protection 400000 363
2 Psychology test 250000 227
3 Medical check up 700000 636
4 Passport 255000 231
5 Training fee (600-hour learning)-Accommodation and meals at the training venue/shelter (110 days)-Training equipment 55000003000000 50002727
6 Competency test 150000 136
7 Service of Private Recruitment and Placement Agency (PPTKIS) –(one month worker’s wages) 4114000 3740
8 Agency Service (10 % of worker’s first month wages) 411400 374
Total amount 14780400 13436

Issued in Jakarta on May 24, 2012

附件二

Indonesia Sets Tuition Fees for State Universities

By Ezra Sihite on 9:25 am May 31, 2013.

The government has set the standard for tuition fees that may be charged by state-run universities from the beginning of the 2013 academic year.

The new standard is aimed at easing the financial burden on students attending tertiary education.

The single tuition fee represents the education expenses that will be covered by the government, while the single tuition cost is the amount students have to cover out of pocket. These amounts vary between different faculties and state universities and will be based on individual students’ financial means.

Education and Culture Minister M Nuh said in a press release on Thursday the tuition fee per student for a single semester at the University of Indonesia’s Faculty of Medicine amounts to a total of Rp 15 million, but with the government subsidy, students will only be accountable for between Rp 500,000 and Rp 7.5 million, in accordance with their means.

The tuition fee at the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning of the Surabaya Institute of Technology costs almost Rp 9 million per semester, but students will pay between Rp 500,000 and Rp 7.5 million per semester.

A semester at the Bandung Institute of Technology’s Mining and Petroleum Faculty costs around Rp 13.4 million and students will only pay between Rp 400,000 and Rp 10 million.

The minister said the lower tuition fees were made possible by subsidies from the State University Operational Assistance Fund (BOPTN).

Nuh reiterated that the subsidies, tuition fees and tuition costs are set based on criteria such as the students’ financial means, cross-subsidies and cost controls.

“The BOPTN [budget] allocation is taken from the education function budget, in which 30 percent is earmarked for research at both state-run universities and private institutions.

The chairman of Indonesia’s Council of State University Rectors, Idrus Paturusi previously said state universities were ready to abide by instructions from the Education Ministry’s to implement a single tuition fee standard towards the end of 2013 .

He said the universities would instead receive more state assistance, about twice the current level, from the government to offset the loss of revenues from the scrapping of the initial school fees.

“If the initial school fee is scrapped and the tuition fees are lowered, that would be very helpful [to students]. What’s more, outside of Java there are many children from regions that are economically worse off,” Idrus said.

He added that under a single tuition fee system, students would only have to pay a fee at the start of the academic semester and would not have to pay any other levies. The Education and Culture Ministry has demanded that all universities, starting with state-owned institutions, prepare to begin the implementation of the tuition fee system.

Meanwhile, Zainal Rafli, assistant to the rector for academic affairs at the Jakarta State University, said his institution already implemented the single tuition fee system for the 2012-2013 year by between Rp 1.9 million to Rp 4 million per student per semester.

“We have already implemented the single tuition fee system from last year and that means there are only tuition fees to pay, no longer any initial school fees, or graduation fees,” he explained.

Zainal called on the government to accelerate the disbursement of the subsidies, and said so far “the BOPTN [subsidy] for this year is still a question mark,” with the amount and time of disbursement still unclear.

Critics say the changes amount to a reversion to previous practices. The single tuition fee system was scrapped when some state universities were privatized in 2002.

附件三

Indonesia Governors Boost Minimum Wage

Measures Follow Labor Protests, Raise Concern Investors May Be Scared Away

By I Made Sentana and Linda Silaen

Nov. 1, 2013 2:06 p.m. ET

Workers took to the streets Friday in Jakarta to demand higher wages. Xinhua/Zuma Press

JAKARTA, Indonesia—A dozen governors across Indonesia on Friday boosted the minimum wage in their localities by an average 19% in the wake of a two-day strike, prompting concern among business groups that the step may scare investors away from a country already losing some of its appeal.

The popular Gov. Joko Widodo of Jakarta was the first to announce an increase in the capital city. The 11% boost would mean workers would have to make at least 2.4 million rupiah [$215] per month starting on Jan. 1. That follows a 42% increase last year.

“We decided that the wage will be 2.4 million rupiah, which was the amount recommended by the wage panel," Mr. Widodo said. “Companies recommended 2.3 million rupiah. We hope there will be no more protests."

Later on Friday, 11 other governors announced wage increases, which ranged from 10% to 45%. The biggest increase was granted by the governor of Sumatra’s province of Bengkulu, which would bring local minimum wages to 1.4 million rupiah.

Some labor unions were unhappy with the wage increases. They had demanded a 50% increase and threatened to continue protests in coming days.

The 21 remaining Indonesian governors are expected to reveal their plans soon, with every one of them expected to raise minimum wages. Analysts said governors are more concerned about the potential political fallout of workers upset about rising fuel prices and inflation than foreign investors deciding to move their money elsewhere.

“I think foreign investors will see it as a bad development, as they will find it difficult to predict the wage increase in the future," said Tio Nugroho, the owner of event-organizing company PT Taranggana Nata Asia. Mr. Nugroho said his company’s income declined around 30% during the first nine-months of the year as many of his clients had to cut promotional events to pay higher wages.

Last week Indonesia’s Investment Coordinating Board reported that foreign direct investment in Indonesia fell to $6.9 billion in the third quarter of the year from $7.2 billion the quarter before.

Friday’s moves to boost wages were on top of the average 30% increase in the minimum wage that already went into effect at the beginning of this year.

Many of the governors ignored the call by the central government recently for them not to increase their local minimum wage by more than 14% for the labor-intensive industries.

That they ignored the central government, analysts said, highlighted the inability of President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono’s administration to influence provincial leaders, who are elected directly by voters in their respective localities. Local leaders will likely continue to be under pressure to meet workers’ demand all the way until the presidential election in June, analysts said, adding to uncertainties about doing business in the country.

Roni Febrianto, a spokesman for a coalition of labor unions, said he’ll keep pushing for higher wages.

“The increase is way below our demand," Mr. Febrianto said while protesting outside the Jakarta City Hall with thousands of other workers. “We will continue to put pressure on the government until they meet our demand."

Mr. Febrianto claimed that around 1.5 million workers in 20 provinces joined the second day of the strike, but there was no independent confirmation.

While a business group said it accepted the increase set in Jakarta, it was concerned with the large increases in some other provinces.

“Jokowi’s decision shows his quality as a good leader, who is not bent by any pressures. But [I don’t see] such quality in other provincial leaders," said Ade Sudrajat, the chairman of the Indonesian Textile Manufacturers’ Association. Textile and footwear companies are typically hit hard by minimum wage increases because they tend to employ many low-wage workers.

Foreign investors, especially those in the labor-intensive industries, may move to neighboring countries—such as Cambodia and Myanmar—if local governments again bow to demands for a sharp pay increase, business groups warned.

“It’s not getting easier to do business here," said Sofjan Wanandi, the chairman of the Indonesian Employers’ Association, one of Indonesia’s large business associations.

—Joko Hariyanto in Jakarta contributed to this article.

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